Already, the elderly are at a higher risk of vitamin deficiency. Caregivers may be able to reduce inadequate intake, ingestion, and nutritional inequity by changing their food regimen and supplementation because diet plays such an important role in their vitamin status.
Dysphagia in this condition is due to degenerative changes at the junction of the pharynx and esophagus, resulting in atrophy (wasting away) of the mucosa. Eventually, this may lead to the formation of a mucosal web in the esophagus and make it difficult for a person to swallow.
Cancer at both these sites makes it difficult for sufferers to eat and swallow food and this leads to loss of appetite. In addition, cancer of the larynx makes it difficult for a person to speak, causing a hoarse voice.
Cancers of the mouth and pharynx make chewing and swallowing difficult, and many patients experience anorexia and lose weight. These tumors may be surgically removed and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy used. Before treatment, a soft, semi-solid, or fluid diet should be given.
Dietary management can play an important role in the recovery of these patients. Ensuring that nutrient requirements are met, and excessive weight loss has avoided the chances for a patient's return to health are significantly increased.
Nutritional status is the degree to which an individual's need for nutrients is being met by the foods that are eaten; there are three common reasons why an assessment of nutritional status is undertaken - first to confirm a diagnosis of malnutrition, secondly to identify the reasons for the presence of malnutrition, and thirdly to provide a means of monitoring the effectiveness of nutritional support.
Nutritional counselling is a process that helps patients learn about themselves, about their eating habits (as part of their total environment) and about methods of coping with their dietary problems. The purpose of counselling is to promote change in behaviour, and this requires both learning and motivation. In diabetic patients the purpose of nutritional counselling is to promote change from current to diabetic eating patterns.
Heart failure may be defined as the failure of the heart to pump blood normally. It embraces many different conditions that lead to a failure of the heart to expel its contents adequately. When the left atrial pressure is raised, and when edema occurs predominantly in the lungs, and when the heart failure is described as left-sided; when it occurs in the systemic circulation, it is described as congestive or right-sided.
Strokes or brain damage may occur because of one of the following:
- Bleeding due to a rapid rise in blood pressure, resulting in the rupture of a vessel.
Cancer of the stomach affects mainly middle-aged and elderly people and is more common among men than women. Its early diagnosis is difficult; this is particularly unfortunate as it can be permanently cured only by radical surgery before metastasis has occurred. Clearly the risk that the cancer will spread will increase according to the length of time before the diagnosis is confirmed.
In the past patients with peptic ulcers were given very restricted bland diets consisting of little else but milk, products containing milk, and carbohydrates, and they were advised to continue with such diets long after their original ulcers had healed. It was thought that these regimens would reduce the production of acid and it was not realized until recently that they were ineffective and could lead to under nourishment. It has now been demonstrated that patients with peptic ulcers who eat a mixed diet recover much more quickly then those who are maintained on a milk drip. Far from suppressing the secretion of acid, as was originally thought, it has now been shown that milk may increase it.
The term ''peptic ulcer'' is used for an ulcer in any part of the GI tract that is exposed to secretions of gastric acid. Peptic ulcers are usually found in the stomach (gastric ulcers) and in the first part of the duodenum (duodenal ulcers) but they also occur in the lower part of the esophagus and in the distal part of the duodenum.
Cirrhosis is the final stage of injury to the liver. It is characterized by fibrosis of the connective tissue and degeneration of the liver cells, impairing the function of the liver. The pathophysiological causes of cirrhosis are unknown, but it is commonly seen in people suffering from biliary obstructions, chronic hepatitis and other infections of the liver, malnutrition, and alcoholism.
Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer that develops in the lungs and spread throughout the body. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide when you breathe in and out. Lung cancer is the most common cancer that leads to mortality worldwide. Lung cancer is most common in smokers, although it can also affect persons who have never smoked. The length of time and number of cigarettes you've smoked raises your chance of lung cancer. You can dramatically reduce your risks of acquiring lung cancer by quitting smoking, even if you've been smoking for a long time.
More on that to come. First, let's review how you can treat stretch marks, and why Stretch Mark Therapy should be at the top of your list for stretch mark-free skin.
Miscarriage is described as "spontaneous abortion" in medical terms.
When an embryo or fetus dies before the 20th week of pregnancy, it is referred to as a miscarriage. Miscarriage is most common early in pregnancy, with 8 out of 10 miscarriages occurring in the first three months.
This type of pregnancy loss affects a large number of women. Unfortunately, 10-20% of pregnancies result in miscarriage. Although miscarriage is a regular occurrence, it can be emotionally draining. Grief and loss are common following a miscarriage.
According to the National Rosacea Society, 74% of rosacea sufferers have cancelled social events because of an outbreak. That's a shame. More than that, it's unnecessary.
Breast cancer is diagnosed using a variety of tests. They may also do tests to see if cancer has progressed beyond the breast and lymph nodes beneath the arm. Metastasis is a term used to describe the spread of cancer cells throughout the body. Doctors may also conduct tests to determine the most effective therapies.
The tests listed below can be used to identify breast cancer or as follow-up testing after a diagnosis.
Knowing what is normal for your breasts is a good idea. You'll be able to contact your doctor if you see anything unusual, such as a lump, a change in your skin, or a discharge. However, Should you conduct a breast self-examination? That is a point on which medical organizations disagree. You can consult your doctor to see if it is appropriate for you.
According to the research data, breast cancer seems to be the most diagnosed cancer among women in the United States. Breast cancer is mostly diagnosed in women over the age of 50, although it can also affect women at a younger age. If it caught early enough, there's a good chance of recovery. All women should examine their breasts regularly for any changes or abnormalities.
Obesity exists when fat makes a greater than normal contribution to total body weight.
In a normal woman, approximately 20-25% of her body weight is fat, and obesity is defined as a body-fat content greater than 30% of total body weight. In contrast, a normal young man will have less body-fat, 15-18% of his total body weight. For a man a definition of obesity would be a body-fat content greater than 25% of total body weight.
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