Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure, is generally considered to be present when the systolic pressure is 160 mm Hg or greater and the diastolic pressure is 95 mm Hg. Readings of 140/90 represent borderline hypertension.
Hypertension is defined as sustained levels of blood pressure greater than 160/95 mm Hg. The World Health Organization defines normotension as blood pressure less than 140/90 mm Hg, and hypertension as sustained levels greater than 160/95 mm Hg. Life expectancy is reduced noticeably, however, when the blood pressure is over120/80 mm Hg.
Folate deficiency anemia is manifested by very low levels of serum folate and red cell folate. Since folate and vitamin B12 are essential for the synthesis of the nucleoproteins required in the development of red blood cells, any deficiency of folate will result in megaloblastic bone marrow and anemia. Patients with folate deficiency anemia develop weakness, tiredness, sore tongues, shortness of breath, loose motions, irritability, and forgetfulness. Appetite may be lost, resulting in weight loss.
The common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is the lack of intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein in the gastric juice, which is essential for the vitamin's absorption. The deficiency may also be found in strict vegetarians because vitamin B12 is found only in foods of animal origin. Other causes include partial or total gastrectomy, conditions with bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel (which create a situation of biological competition-blind loop and small bowel diverticulosis) and non-tropical sprue.
Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by low levels of haemoglobin, low serum iron, and an increased total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Iron deficiency anemia affects about 500 million people throughout the world. In developing countries, the common combination of an abnormal loss of blood from the intestine (for example from hookworm infestation) and a limited intake of iron in the diet means that the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is much higher than in developed countries.