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Hepatitis Causes, Effects, Implications, and Management

Hepatitis Causes, Effects, Implications, and Management

Hepatitis is an infectious disease characterized by inflammatory and degenerative changes of the liver. It occurs in several forms:-

Acute

  • Mild hepatitis: A flu-like illness accompanied by a degree of jaundice.
  • Severe hepatitis: A severe inflammatory disease of the liver causing acute liver failure and coma.

Chronic

A chronic condition characterized by exhaustion and fluctuating jaundice, untreated it may result in cirrhosis. Ascites are a common feature of the later stages of the disease.

 

Two kinds of causation are recognized:

  1. Viral Induced
  • Type A (Infectious Hepatitis)
  • Type B (Serum)
  • Type C (Post-Transfusion)
  1. Drug Induced

 

Viral Induced Hepatitis

  1. Type A (Infectious Hepatitis)

Type A is transmitted by the ora-fecal route Sources of contamination include drinking water, food, and sewage. Type A usually progresses to mild, rarely to chronic, hepatitis

  1. Type B (Serum)

Type B is transmitted parenterally, through improperly sterilized needles, syringes and tubing, and blood. Type B is often more severe and more likely to develop into a potentially serious liver disorder, such as chronic hepatitis

  1. Type C (Post-Transfusion)

Type C accounts for a large proportion of patients in hospitals with post-transfusion hepatitis.

 

Drug-Induced Hepatitis

Drug-induced hepatitis may be due to alcohol, heroin, or hypersensitivity to sulfa compounds or penicillin, or the direct, toxic effect on the liver of agents such as carbon tetrachloride.

 

What are the common clinical symptoms of hepatitis?

The common symptoms of hepatitis are jaundice, anorexia, malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, weight loss, and abdominal discomfort. Patients suffering from jaundice find their skin and eyes appear yellow and their urine dark because of the increase in the circulating bilirubin. The liver becomes enlarged (hepatomegaly) as well. Laboratory analysis of the blood reveals that levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) are increased

 

The objectives of management and the role of diet

The objectives of dietary treatment are to aid in the regeneration of liver tissue and to prevent liver damage.

  • This can be accomplished by providing a nutritious diet.
  • The patient must be convinced of the importance of the diet in promoting recovery and preventing relapses.
  • Food must be well prepared and attractively served, with consideration given to the patient's preferences.

 

References

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20068336/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33046891/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32628251/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28942620/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31558542/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31711553/

 

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