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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Everything You Need To Know About PCOS

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Everything You Need To Know About PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent medical condition among the women’s of reproductive age. According to the medical report of World Health Organization (WHO)polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects the 4-8% of women worldwide”. Another documentation of National Institute of Health unveils the fact that ‘’PCOS affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States”. The term "polycystic" clearly translates the meaning of "many cysts." These distinctive cysts can develop on the ovaries, but it's crucial to remember that this is only a symptom, not the underlying cause of the condition. Women with PCOS may have irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles, as well as high levels of the male hormone androgen. The healthy menstrual cycle disturbs due to hormonal imbalance issues as the ovaries may not be able to produce or release egg at the proper time during the process of ovulation.

 

Symptoms

The exact root cause of PCOS is still dubious. The condition of PCOS can be treated if it is diagnosed and treated early. You may be able to lower the risk of long-term issues linked with PCOS symptoms by reducing or maintaining a healthy weight. The common sign and symptoms of PCOS include:

  1. Disturb Menstrual Cycle (Periods are missed, irregular, or very mild)
  2. Large ovaries or ovaries with a lot of cysts
  3. Excessive body hair, particularly on the chest, stomach, and back (hirsutism)
  4. Weight gain, particularly around the stomach (abdomen)
  5. Acne or acne-prone skin
  6. Hair thinning or male-pattern baldness
  7. Infertility
  8. Excess skin on the neck or armpits (skin tags)
  9. On the back of the neck, in the armpits, and under the breasts, there are dark or thick skin patches.

 

Causes

The following are some of the factors that could play a role:

Excess insulin production

Insulin resistance might cause the high level of androgens and testosterone hormones in the ovaries. The body cells behave abnormally with insulin production and does not help the body to keep sugar level stable.

 

Low-grade inflammation

 

Low-grade inflammation stimulates the polycystic ovaries to create androgens, which can cause cardiovascular disease related problems.

Heredity Genes

 

Hereditary genes might be linked to PCOS.

Excess androgen Production

The abnormal production of high levels of androgen by ovaries may cause hirsutism and acne.

Risk Factors

If your mother or sister has PCOS, you're more likely to have it as well. If you have insulin resistance or are overweight, you may be more likely to develop it.

The following long-term health concerns are linked to PCOS:

  • Insulin resistance 
  • Diabetes has a higher chance of developing in women, especially if they are overweight.
  • Abnormalities in cholesterol and blood fats
  • Coronary heart disease (heart disease, heart attack and stroke)
  • Endometrial cancer

 

Complications

PCOS complications might include:

  • Premature birth or miscarriage
  • Infertility Issues
  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
  • Metabolic syndrome is a group of symptoms that include high blood pressure, diabetes, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels, all of which raise your risk of heart disease.
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Sleep apnea (sleep deprivation)
  • Anxiety, depression, and eating problems
  • Uterine bleeding
  • Uterine cancer

 

Diagnosis

PCOS is most likely to be diagnosed by:

  • Checking your medical history
  • Body examination
  • Blood Hormone test (LH, FSH, testosterone, etc.)
  • Other tests, such as a pelvic ultrasound, may be required.
  • Early detection is critical for managing symptoms and preventing long-term health issues like diabetes.

 

Treatment

  • To avoid health concerns connected with PCOS, it's critical to address and treat all the symptoms. PCOS is a long-term condition that needs long-term treatment.
  • PCOS can be managed in a variety of ways, depending on your symptoms:
  • Changing your lifestyle - getting more exercise and eating a nutritious diet can help you control PCOS.
  • If you are overweight, first you should lose your weight. Different research has shown that even a five to ten percent weight loss may have a substantial impact on your health.
  • Hormonal or medical therapy can help in treating PCOS complications.

 

Conclusion

PCOS is a hormonal problem that affects many women of reproductive age. PCOS affects women who don't ovulate, have high amounts of androgens, and have a lot of tiny cysts in their ovaries. Missed or irregular menstrual cycles, excessive hair growth, acne, infertility, and weight gain are all symptoms of PCOS. PCOS can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and endometrial cancer in women. Doctors typically prescribe lifestyle changes as the primary therapy for PCOS treatment. Weight loss can help with PCOS symptoms and increase your chances of becoming pregnant. Weight loss can be achieved by a combination of diet and aerobic activity. Medications can also be used to treat symptoms including excessive hair growth, irregular periods, and reproductive issues.

 

References

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18097891/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32621748/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31403134/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29678491/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33211867/

 

 

 

 

 

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